EVOLUTION

Vocabulary

a

advance [ədˈvɑːns]

pay (money) to (someone) before it is due

advantage [ədˈvɑːntɪdʒ]

a condition or circumstance that puts one in a favorable or superior position

afternoon [ɑːftəˈnuːn]

the time from noon or lunchtime to evening

almost [ˈɔːlməʊst]

not quite; very nearly

already [ɔːlˈrɛdi]

before or by now or the time in question

always [ˈɔːlweɪz]

at all times; on all occasions

ambulance [ˈambjʊl(ə)ns]

a vehicle equipped for taking sick or injured people to and from hospital, especially in emergencies

appeal [əˈpiːl]

Law apply to a higher court for a reversal of the decision of a lower court

arbitration court [ɑːbɪˈtreɪʃ(ə)n kɔːt]

around [əˈraʊnd]

located or situated on every side

b

bank guarantee [baŋk gar(ə)nˈtiː]

a thing serving as security for a guarantee

bench [bɛn(t)ʃ]

a long seat for several people, typically made of wood or stone

border police [ˈbɔːdə pəˈliːs]

a patrol sent to keep watch over an area along a country’s border

born [bɔːn]

existing as a result of birth

breakfast [ˈbrɛkfəst]

a meal eaten in the morning, the first of the day

busy [ˈbɪzi]

having a great deal to do

c

car [kɑː]

a road vehicle, typically with four wheels, powered by an internal-combustion engine and able to carry a small number of people

celebration [sɛlɪˈbreɪʃ(ə)n]

the action of celebrating an important day or event

champagne [ʃamˈpeɪn]

a white sparkling wine from Champagne

cheap [tʃiːp]

low in price, especially in relation to similar items or services

cigarette [sɪgəˈrɛt]

a thin cylinder of finely cut tobacco rolled in paper for smoking

citizen [ˈsɪtɪz(ə)n]

a legally recognized subject or national of a state or commonwealth, either native or naturalized

city [ˈsɪti]

a large town

commercial [kəˈməːʃ(ə)l]

a television or radio advertisement

company [ˈkʌmp(ə)ni]

a commercial business

compartment [kəmˈpɑːtm(ə)nt]

a separate section or part of a structure or container

compensation [kɒmpɛnˈseɪʃ(ə)n]

something, typically money, awarded to someone in recognition of loss, suffering, or injury

counter [ˈkaʊntə]

a long flat-topped fitment across which business is conducted in a shop or bank or refreshments are served in a cafeteria

county [ˈkaʊnti]

a territorial division of some countries, forming the chief unit of local administration

courthouse [ˈkɔːthaʊs]

a building in which a judicial court is held

currency [ˈkʌr(ə)nsi]

a system of money in general use in a particular country

currency [ˈkʌr(ə)ns]

a system of money in general use in a particular country

d

day [deɪ]

each of the twenty-four-hour periods, reckoned from one midnight to the next, into which a week, month, or year is divided, and corresponding to a rotation of the earth on its axis

driver [ˈdrʌɪvə]

a person who drives a vehicle

driving licence [ˈdrʌɪvɪŋ ˈlʌɪs(ə)ns]

a document permitting a person to drive a motor vehicle

e

embassy [ˈɛmbəsi]

the official residence or offices of an ambassador

energy [ˈɛnədʒi]

power derived from the utilization of physical or chemical resources, especially to provide light and heat or to work machines

enough [ɪˈnʌf]

as much or as many as required

european projects [jʊərəˈpiːən ˈprɒdʒɛkt]

example [ɪgˈzɑːmp(ə)l]

a thing characteristic of its kind or illustrating a general rule

exceptional [ɪkˈsɛpʃ(ə)n(ə)l]

unusual; not typical

f

factory [ˈfakt(ə)ri]

a building or group of buildings where goods are manufactured or assembled chiefly by machine

fair [fɛː]

family [ˈfamɪli]

[treated as singular or plural] a group consisting of two parents and their children living together as a unit

feeding [fiːdin]

give food to

fight [fʌɪt]

take part in a violent struggle involving the exchange of physical blows or the use of weapons

flat [flat]

flight [flʌɪt]

the action or process of flying through the air

folklore [ˈfəʊklɔː]

the traditional beliefs, customs, and stories of a community, passed through the generations by word of mouth

food [fuːd]

any nutritious substance that people or animals eat or drink or that plants absorb in order to maintain life and growth

force majeure [ˌfɔːs maˈʒəː]

Law unforeseeable circumstances that prevent someone from fulfilling a contract.

form [fɔːm]

the visible shape or configuration of something

format [ˈfɔːmat]

the way in which something is arranged or set out

fuel [fjʊəl]

material such as coal, gas, or oil that is burned to produce heat or power

g

good evening

expressing good wishes on meeting or parting during the evening

good morning

expressing good wishes on meeting or parting during the morning

good [gʊd]

to be desired or approved of

guest [gɛst]

a person who is invited to visit someone’s home or attend a particular social occasion

guide [gʌɪd]

a person who shows the way to others, especially one employed to show tourists around places of interest

h

hall [hɔːl]

a building or large room used for meetings, concerts, or other events

hello [həˈləʊ]

used as a greeting or to begin a telephone conversation

hello [həˈləʊ]

used as a greeting or to begin a conversation

holiday [ˈhɒlɪdeɪ]

(often holidays) an extended period of leisure and recreation, especially one spent away from home or in travelling

holiday [ˈhɒlɪdeɪ]

(often holidays) an extended period of leisure and recreation, especially one spent away from home or in travelling

home [həʊm]

the place where one lives permanently, especially as a member of a family or household

i

immediately [ɪˈmiːdɪətli]

at once; instantly

important [ɪmˈpɔːt(ə)nt]

of great significance or value

indication [ɪndɪˈkeɪʃ(ə)n]

a sign or piece of information that indicates something

indicator [ˈɪndɪkeɪtə]

a thing that indicates the state or level of something

initiative [ɪˈnɪʃɪətɪv]

the ability to assess and initiate things independently

innovation [ɪnəˈveɪʃ(ə)n]

the action or process of innovating

interesting [ˈɪnt(ə)rɪstɪŋ]

arousing curiosity or interest; holding or catching the attention

international [ɪntəˈnaʃ(ə)n(ə)l]

existing, occurring, or carried on between nations

j

job [dʒɒb]

a paid position of regular employment

joke [dʒəʊk]

a thing that someone says to cause amusement or laughter, especially a story with a funny punchline

k

kilogram [ˈkɪləgram]

the SI unit of mass, equivalent to the international standard

kilometer [kɪˈlɒmɪtə]

a metric unit of measurement equal to 1,000 metres (approximately 0.62 miles)

l

lady, mrs. [ˈmɪsɪz]

the title used before a surname or full name to address or refer to a married woman without a higher or honorific or professional title

last [lɑːst]

coming after all others in time or order; final

lawyer [ˈlɔːjə]

a person who practices or studies law, especially (in the UK) a solicitor or a barrister or (in the US) an attorney.

letter [ˈlɛtə]

a written, typed, or printed communication, sent in an envelope by post or messenger

little [ˈlɪt(ə)l]

small in size, amount, or degree

luggage [ˈlʌgɪdʒ]

suitcases or other bags in which to pack personal belongings for travelling

luxury [ˈlʌkʃ(ə)ri]

a state of great comfort or elegance, especially when involving great expense

m

mackerel [ˈmak(ə)r(ə)l]

a predatory marine fish with a greenish-blue back, important as a food fish

manager [ˈmanɪdʒə]

a person responsible for controlling or administering an organization or group of staff

mayor [mɛː]

the head of a town, borough, or county council

merchandise [ˈməːtʃ(ə)ndʌɪs]

goods to be bought and sold

metre [ˈmiːtə]

the fundamental unit of length in the metric system, equal to 100 centimetres or approximately 39.37 inches

mister [ˈmɪstə]

sed as a form of address to a man

money [ˈmʌni]

a current medium of exchange in the form of coins and banknotes; coins and banknotes collectively

mosquito [mɒˈskiːtəʊ]

a slender long-legged fly with aquatic larvae

museum [mjuːˈzɪəm]

a building in which objects of historical, scientific, artistic, or cultural interest are stored and exhibited

n

napkin [ˈnapkɪn]

a square piece of cloth or paper used at a meal to wipe the fingers or lips and to protect garments

nature [ˈneɪtʃə]

the phenomena of the physical world collectively, including plants, animals, the landscape, and other features and products of the earth, as opposed to humans or human creations

necessarily [ˈnɛsəs(ə)rɪli]

as a necessary result; inevitably

necessary [ˈnɛsəs(ə)ri]

needed to be done, achieved, or present; essential

negative [ˈnɛgətɪv]

consisting in or characterized by the absence rather than the presence of distinguishing features

newspaper [ˈnjuːzpeɪpə]

a printed publication (usually issued daily or weekly) consisting of folded unstapled sheets and containing news, articles, advertisements, and correspondence

noise [nɔɪz]

a sound, especially one that is loud or unpleasant or that causes disturbance

notary [ˈnəʊt(ə)ri]

a person authorized to perform certain legal formalities, especially to draw up or certify contracts, deeds, and other documents for use in other jurisdictions

o

offense [əˈfɛns]

a breach of a law or rule; an illegal act

office [ˈɒfɪs]

a room, set of rooms, or building used as a place of business for non-manual work

official [əˈfɪʃ(ə)l]

relating to an authority or public body and its activities and responsibilities

oil [ɔɪl]

a viscous liquid derived from petroleum, especially for use as a fuel or lubricant

owner [ˈəʊnə]

a person who owns something

p

people [ˈpiːp(ə)l]

human beings in general or considered collectively

proposition [prɒpəˈzɪʃ(ə)n]

a statement or assertion that expresses a judgement or opinion

r

radiator [ˈreɪdɪeɪtə]

a thing that radiates or emits light, heat, or sound

radio [ˈreɪdɪəʊ]

the transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves of radio frequency, especially those carrying sound messages

recent [ˈriːs(ə)nt]

having happened, begun, or been done not long ago; belonging to a past period comparatively close to the present

recipient [rɪˈsɪpɪənt]

a person or thing that receives or is awarded something

regular [ˈrɛgjʊlə]

arranged in or constituting a constant or definite pattern, especially with the same space between individual instances

research development [rɪˈsəːtʃ dɪˈvɛləpm(ə)nt]

(in industry) work directed towards the innovation, introduction, and improvement of products and processes.

river [ˈrɪvə]

a large natural stream of water flowing in a channel to the sea, a lake, or another river

road [rəʊd]

a wide way leading from one place to another, especially one with a specially prepared surface which vehicles can use

round [raʊnd]

shaped like a circle or cylinder

s

sacrifice [ˈsakrɪfʌɪs]

an act of slaughtering an animal or person or surrendering a possession as an offering to a deity

snack [snak]

a small amount of food eaten between meals

snow [snəʊ]

tmospheric water vapour frozen into ice crystals and falling in light white flakes or lying on the ground as a white layer

state [steɪt]

a nation or territory considered as an organized political community under one government

statistics [stəˈtɪstɪks]

the practice or science of collecting and analysing numerical data in large quantities, especially for the purpose of inferring proportions in a whole from those in a representative sample

subway [ˈsʌbweɪ]

an underground railway

sugar [ˈʃʊgə]

a sweet crystalline substance obtained from various plants, especially sugar cane and sugar beet, consisting essentially of sucrose, and used as a sweetener in food and drink

t

tax [taks]

a compulsory contribution to state revenue, levied by the government on workers' income and business profits, or added to the cost of some goods, services, and transactions

teaching [ˈtiːtʃɪŋ]

the occupation, profession, or work of a teacher

team [tiːm]

a group of players forming one side in a competitive game or sport

technological transfer [tɛknəˈlɒdʒɪk(ə)l transˈfəː]

move from one place to another

telephone [ˈtɛlɪfəʊn]

a system for transmitting voices over a distance using wire or radio, by converting acoustic vibrations to electrical signals

temperature [ˈtɛmp(ə)rətʃə]

the degree or intensity of heat present in a substance or object, especially as expressed according to a comparative scale and shown by a thermometer or perceived by touch

temporary [ˈtɛmp(ə)rəri]

lasting for only a limited period of time; not permanent

termination [təːmɪˈneɪʃ(ə)n]

the action of terminating something or the fact of being terminated

thing/s [θɪŋ]

an object that one need not, cannot, or does not wish to give a specific name to

to calculate [ˈkalkjʊleɪt]

to determine (the amount or number of something) mathematically

to climb [klʌɪm]

to go or come up a (slope or staircase); ascend

to confirm [kənˈfəːm]

establish the truth or correctness of (something previously believed or suspected to be the case)

to count on [tʊ kaʊnt on]

to count [kaʊnt]

to determine the total number of (a collection of items)

to decide [dɪˈsʌɪd]

to come or bring to a resolution in the mind as a result of consideration

to discover [dɪˈskʌvə]

find unexpectedly or during a search

to drink [drɪŋk]

take (a liquid) into the mouth and swallow

to examine [ɪgˈzamɪn]

inspect (someone or something) thoroughly in order to determine their nature or condition

to feel [fiːl]

to be aware of (a person or object) through touching or being touched

to follow [ˈfɒləʊ]

to go or come after (a person or thing proceeding ahead); move or travel behind

to get used to

to give [gɪv]

freely transfer the possession of (something) to (someone)

to go to the market

to greet [griːt]

give a polite word of recognition or sign of welcome when meeting (someone)

to hold [həʊld]

to grasp, carry, or support with one’s arms or hands

to hurry [ˈhʌri]

to move or act with great haste

to know [nəʊ]

to be aware of through observation, inquiry, or information

to leave [liːv]

to go away from

to meet [miːt]

arrange or happen to come into the presence or company of (someone)

to observe [əbˈzəːv]

notice or perceive (something) and register it as being significant

to park [pɑːk]

bring (a vehicle that one is driving) to a halt and leave it temporarily, typically in a car park or by the side of the road

to play [pleɪ]

engage in activity for enjoyment and recreation rather than a serious or practical purpose

to practice [ˈpraktɪs]

the actual application or use of an idea, belief, or method, as opposed to theories relating to it

to pull [pʊl]

to exert force on (someone or something) so as to cause movement towards oneself

to repeat [rɪˈpiːt]

to say again something one has already said

to see [siː]

to perceive with the eyes; discern visually

to sell [sɛl]

to give or hand over (something) in exchange for money

to share [ʃɛː]

have a portion of (something) with another or others

to solve [sɒlv]

to find an answer to, explanation for, or means of effectively dealing with (a problem or mystery)

to spend [spɛnd]

give (money) to pay for goods, services, or so as to benefit someone or something

to stop [stɒp]

come to an end; cease to happen

to talk [tɔːk]

to speak in order to give information or express ideas or feelings; converse or communicate by spoken words

to think [θɪŋk]

to have a particular belief or idea

to translate [transˈleɪt]

to express the sense of (words or text) in another language

to unite [juːˈnʌɪt]

to come or bring together for a common purpose or action

to walk [wɔːk]

to move at a regular pace by lifting and setting down each foot in turn, never having both feet off the ground at once

to write down

to write [rʌɪt]

mark (letters, words, or other symbols) on a surface, typically paper, with a pen, pencil, or similar implement

traffic jam

a line or lines of stationary or very slow-moving traffic, caused by roadblocks, an accident, or heavy congestion.

train station [treɪn ˈsteɪʃ(ə)n]

trousers [ˈtraʊzəz]

an outer garment covering the body from the waist to the ankles, with a separate part for each leg

turn [təːn]

move or cause to move in a circular direction wholly or partly around an axis or point

u

until now [ənˈtɪl naʊ]

v

value [ˈvaljuː]

the regard that something is held to deserve; the importance, worth, or usefulness of something

vegetables [ˈvɛdʒtəb(ə)l]

a plant or part of a plant used as food, such as a cabbage, potato, turnip, or bean

village [ˈvɪlɪdʒ]

a group of houses and associated buildings, larger than a hamlet and smaller than a town, situated in a rural area

visit [ˈvɪzɪt]

an act of going to see a person or place as a guest, tourist, etc.

w

wardrobe [ˈwɔːdrəʊb]

a large, tall cupboard in which clothes may be hung or stored

week [wiːk]

a period of seven days

wheel [wiːl]

a circular object that revolves on an axle and is fixed below a vehicle or other object to enable it to move over the ground

why [wʌɪ]

for what reason or purpose

win [wɪn]

be successful or victorious in (a contest or conflict)

without [wɪðˈaʊt]

in the absence of

world [wəːld]

(usually the world) the earth, together with all of its countries and peoples